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Irregular Verbs

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What are irregular verbs?
Most verbs in the English language take -ed to form the past tense and the past participle forms. For example:

    I worked in New York for many years.
    I have worked in New York for many years.

Some verbs are irregular, which means they don't follow the usual -ed pattern. In fact, irregular verbs are more a matter of vocabulary memorization than grammar, and so students must simply work towards memorizing the words. Here are a few examples of irregular verbs:

    X Thomas swimmed in the lake every summer afternoon.
    O Thomas swam in the lake every summer afternoon.

    X I had forgetted my lunch appointment, so I getted to the restaurant thirty minutes late.
    O I had forgotten my lunch appointment, so I got to the restaurant thirty minutes late.

    X Our teacher teached us about irregular verbs yesterday.
    O Our teacher taught us about irregular verbs yesterday.

Here's a list of many irregular verbs. The ones marked with the following symbol ( ο ) are more often used, and should perhaps first be studied.


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plain form past tense past participle
 awakeawokeawoken
οbewas / werebeen
 beatbeatbeat
 obecomebecamebecome
 obeginbeganbegun
 bendbentbent
 bitebitbitten
 bleedbledbled
 blowblewblown
 obreakbrokebroken
 obringbroughtbrought
 broadcastbroadcastbroadcast
 buildbuiltbuilt
 burnburnt / burnedburnt / burned
 obuyboughtbought
 ocatchcaughtcaught
 ochoosechosechosen
 ocomecamecome
 ocostcostcost
 creepcreptcrept
 ocutcutcut
 dealdealtdealt
 divedived / dovedived
 digdugdug
 ododiddone
 drawdrewdrawn
 dreamdreamt / dreameddreamt / dreamed
 odrinkdrankdrunk
 odrivedrovedriven
 oeatateeaten
 fallfellfallen
 feedfedfed
 fightfoughtfought
 findfoundfound
 oflyflewflown
 forbidforbadeforbidden
 oforgetforgotforgotten
 freezefrozefrozen
 ogetgotgot / gotten
 ogivegavegiven
 ogowentgone / been
 growgrewgrown
 hanghunghung
 ohavehadhad
 ohearheardheard
 hidehidhidden
 ohithithit
 holdheldheld
 hurthurthurt
 keepkeptkept
 kneelkneltknelt
 oknowknewknown
 laylaidlaid
 leadledled
 olearnleanrt / leanredlearnt / learned
 oleaveleftleft
 lendlentlent
 oletletlet
 lielaylain
 lightlit / lightedlit / lighted
 loselostlost
 omakemademade
 meanmeantmeant
 omeetmetmet
 mistakemistookmistaken
 opaypaidpaid
 proveprovedproved / proven
 oputputput
 oreadreadread
 ridridrid
 orideroderidden
 ringrangrung
 riseroserisen
 orunranrun
 osaysaidsaid
 oseesawseen
 osellsoldsold
 osendsentsent
 setsetset
 shakeshookshaken
 shineshoneshone
 shootshotshot
 oshowshowedshown
 shrinkshrankshrunk
 shutshutshut
 osingsangsung
 sinksanksunk
 ositsatsat
 osleepsleptslept
 osmellsmelt / smelledsmelt / smelled
 ospeakspokespoken
 speedspedsped
 ospellspelt / spelledspelt / spelled
 ospendspentspent
 spillspilt / spilledsplit / spilled
 spinspanspun
 spitspatspat
 splitsplitsplit
 spoilspolit / spoiledspolit / spoiled
 ostandstoodstood
 stealstolestolen
 stickstuckstuck
 stinkstankstunk
 strikestruckstruck
 sweepsweptswept
 swingswungswung
 oswimswamswum
 otaketooktaken
 oteachtaughttaught
 teartoretorn
 otelltoldtold
 othinkthoughtthought
 throwthrownthrown
 ounderstandunderstoodunderstood
 owakewokewoken
 owearwornworn
 owinwonwon
 windwoundwound
 wringwrungwrung
 owritewrotewritten
 wringwrungwrung
    

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